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Types of Coffee Roast

หนึ่งในความลับของการดื่มกาแฟให้ได้ประโยชน์ที่ใครหลายคนอาจไม่รู้ก็คือ ‘ระดับการคั่วของกาแฟ’ ที่จะส่งผลต่อสารสำคัญภายในเมล็ดกาแฟที่จะส่งผลต่อร่างกายของเรานั่นเอง เพราะการคั่วกาแฟถือเป็นศิลปะอย่างแท้จริง คุณจะต้องแปลกใจที่ได้เรียนรู้ถึงความแตกต่างที่ละเอียดอ่อน เช่น อุณหภูมิที่แตกต่างกันเพียงเล็กน้อยสามารถทำให้รสชาติของเมล็ดกาแฟ เปลี่ยนแปลงได้ ลองไปอ่านกันต่อเลย แล้วคุณจะได้รู้ทุกเรื่องที่อยากรู้เกี่ยวกับขั้นตอนสำคัญของกระบวนการสกัดกาแฟ การเตรียม และการคั่ว รวมทั้งประเภทของการคั่วกาแฟที่คุณอาจพบเจอ

Types of Coffee Roast

There are three common types of coffee roasts, all with their own unique flavours and notes which are brought out at different stages of the roasting process. 

dark roast coffee

1. Dark roast coffee

The boldest roasting profile available, dark roast coffee is roasted to a temperature of between 240°c - 250°c. This type is black in colour with an oily surface and a very bitter taste. The flavours are very pronounced with strong notes and often, hints of caramel can be found in these types of coffee roast. 

Medium-dark and dark roasted coffee beans go through what is known as ‘second crack’, relating to an occurrence during the roasting process. ‘First crack’ is when the coffee beans will audibly pop like popcorn or puff up slightly, whereas ‘second crack’ is a slightly softer sound. It means that if the roasting process continues long enough, coffee beans will go through a second crack, which is usually caused by the oils beginning to migrate from inside of the bean to the outside. 

medium roast coffee

2. Medium roast coffee

As the name suggests, medium roast coffee is medium brown in colour, dry and generally more balanced in flavour. This type of coffee roast is roasted to a temperature of between 210°C - 220°C and is preferred by many as the flavour, aroma and acidity all entwine in a harmonious blend and often, a slightly sweeter taste and stronger aroma can be expected too. 

light roast coffee

3. Light roast coffee

Light roast coffee is also known as the first crack due to the fact that the beans are at the first stage of expanding and cracking.

This type of coffee roast is when the beans reach an internal temperature of between 180°c - 205°c and are very light in colour and dry with absolutely no oil present on the surface. The flavour profile will be quite acidic but you’ll also expect fruity notes and a more aromatic experience too. 

3 ขั้นตอนการคั่วกาแฟ

Step 1: Extracting the coffee beans 

Prior to roasting, the bean needs to be extracted from within the many layers of a coffee cherry. For coffee, we are only looking to extract and use the beans found in the centre (generally there are two coffee beans) 

The coffee cherry is made up approximately six layers. Starting with the outer skin, then the pulp, mucilage, parchment, silver-skin and the all-important beans in the middle.

Step 2: Preparing the coffee beans

Before the coffee beans are roasted, they must go through a special preparation stage, which can be done through either a washed process or a natural one.

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What’s the difference between washed and naturally prepared coffee beans?

Dry/Natural Coffee Process

Dry process, also known as unwashed or natural coffee, is the oldest method of processing coffee. The entire cherry after harvest is first cleaned and then placed in the sun to dry on tables or in thin layers on patios.

The natural/dry process refers to when the bean is dried in the cherry before de-pulping. De-pulping is the process of separating the coffee seeds from the outer layer of flesh. After coffee cherries are picked, they must be de-pulped within 24 hours. If the cherries pass the 24-hour mark without being de-pulped, they may produce an overly fruity, rotten flavour that can ruin the quality of the coffee

Wet/Washed Coffee Process


The washed process is where the beans are dried without the cherry, de-pulped and then they are usually fermented to help in separating the rest of the pectin from the bean and parchment, then finally, the beans will be washed and cleaned before drying.

In the wet process, the fruit covering the seeds/beans is removed before they are dried. Coffee processed by the wet method is called wet processed or washed coffee. The wet method requires the use of specific equipment and substantial quantities of water.

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Step 3: The roasting process

Interestingly, coffee beans aren’t just the wonderful rich, brown colour with the flavour and aroma we all cherish – they’re actually green to begin with and smell grassy! It’s the magic of the roasting process that we owe to the fantastic flavours and scents of the humble coffee bean.

Once the beans are put inside the drum of the coffee roaster and they begin to heat up, the process causes a chemical change in the beans as they’re brought to a high temperature very quickly. Then, once they reach the ideal temperature for that particular roast, they get cooled rapidly in order to stop them being roasted further. The whole process may sound relatively simple, but it requires a keen eye to ensure they’re roasted to the correct standards.

For those who prefer their coffee with a strong and intense flavour, our NESCAFÉ Black Roast is the one. Using only the finest beans, these are put through a careful roasting process by master roasters and given a long roast until they’re black, but not burnt, providing them with an intense flavour unlike any other blend.